Steel-spring-floating slab tracks are widely used in subway lines. It is necessary to analyze and study the vibration damping and transmission characteristics of the steel-spring-floating slab track in various frequency bands under the action of train loads. A steel-spring-floating slab track and ordinary monolithic track tunnel sites with similar line conditions on straight and curved segments were selected. The vibration signals of rail, track bed, and tunnel walls were collected and the analysis results of vibration damping and vibration transmission between the steel-spring-floating slab track and the ordinary monolithic track were compared. The dynamic responses of the rail in the four working conditions are relatively close, and the acceleration of the steel-spring-floating slab track bed is significantly larger than that of the ordinary monolithic track. The vibration response generated in the curved segment is significantly greater, and each frequency band will generate more peak points, and the high-frequency vibration will be more severe. The steel-spring-floating slab track can significantly reduce the acceleration response of the tunnel wall; the bottom constraint of the steel-spring-floating slab track is less, and the vibration response of the track bed is more severe.